Please use the following information to learn more about common medical problems, foot conditions and the amazing treatments doctors of podiatry can offer. If you have any questions, please consider one of "America's Best Podiatrists" for a consultation, examination and care.
A podiatrist is a medical specialist involved with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of foot disorders and diseases. Specialties within podiatry include podiatric surgery, podiatric sports medicine, pediatric podiatry, and geriatric podiatry. Podiatrists may work in private practice, a clinic or hospital setting.
The Doctor of Podiatric Medicine (DPM) degree requires four years of college, followed by an additional four years of intensive post-graduate training at a school of Podiatry. College coursework includes organic and inorganic chemistry, physics and biology; and may also include microbiology, human anatomy, and biochemistry. Podiatric Medicine training involves more advanced study in basic sciences, medicine, surgery and clinical podiatry.
Excessive pressure placed on the big toe can force it out of alignment and cause the bone or tissue around the base of the joint to enlarge. This is called a bunion. A bunionette, also referred to as a tailor’s bunion, affects the little toe and appears as a bony bump at the toe’s base. With a bunion, the big toe may bend in toward the other toes, causing swelling and discomfort in the joint. With a bunionette, the little toe may bend in, as well, with the same resulting swelling and pain.
Some bunions do not exhibit symptoms. Others may cause:
The symptoms of a bunionette are similar, but they involve the little toe.
Causes of Bunions
Following an examination of the toe joint and a range-of-motion evaluation, your doctor may want to know:
X-rays, lab work, and assessment of joint fluid may also be helpful to diagnose a bunion and/or rule out other conditions that may be causing the symptoms, such as rheumatoid arthritis, gout, or an infection in the joint.
There is no sure way to prevent or cure bunions, but you can reduce the risk of developing them. Wear flat or low-heeled shoes with appropriate arch support and a toe box that does not place pressure on toes. Homecare is often considered the best course of treatment for bunions and may include:
A callus is a thickened area of skin. Corns are also thickened areas of skin, but they can have a soft or hard core. People typically experience calluses on the hands or feet. Corns usually appear on the toes. A corn between the toes is called a soft corn. A corn on the top of a toe is called a hard corn. Calluses and corns can cause discomfort when pressure is placed on them.
Callus & Corn Symptoms
A callus can appear as a yellowish or grayish thick, dry, hard lump on the skin with a bumpy consistency. Decreased sensitivity may occur in the area of hardened tissue. A corn can present itself as a firm, thick nodule, often with a yellow-ringed gray center (when it appears on a hand) or an open sore (when it’s a soft corn).
Causes of Calluses & Corns
Excess friction or pressure can cause a calluses or corns to form. If sweat is trapped in the skin cells when a corn is forming, it softens the hard skin cells at the core, and a soft corn develops. Calluses and corns are not caused by a virus and are not contagious. Causes may include going barefoot, wearing ill-fitting shoes, repetitive pressure on the foot, a gait that is abnormal, flat feet, or bone spurs.
Diagnosing Calluses & Corns
An examination by a healthcare provider coupled with questions about hobbies, sporting activities, your type of work, and the shoes you wear can contribute to a diagnosis. X-rays may be required, in some instances.
Tips to alleviate pain include:
Diabetes- Special Note:
Never treat a callus or corn by cutting it or by using salicylic acid yourself. This is especially true if you suffer from diabetes or other condition that causes you to experience numbness of the extremities or problems with the circulatory system.
Preventing Calluses & Corns
Tips for prevention include:
Custom orthotics are prescribed by a podiatrist based on an assessment of your specific needs and an examination of your feet, legs, and ankles. Prescription orthotics provide comfort and support to feet and are designed to fit your unique gait and activities, alleviate foot discomfort and/or issues, and improve function. Orthotics are prescribed for conditions such as ankle pain, heel discomfort, plantar fasciitis, bursitis, foot problems related to diabetes, and other conditions.
There are two types of custom orthotics: functional and accommodative.
Custom orthotics prescribed by a podiatrist usually cost more than the shoe inserts available over the counter, although your insurance company may pay a portion of the cost. Each custom orthotic is a one-of-a-kind device specifically made to fit the foot of an individual and address that individual’s unique situation. Made of high-quality materials, custom orthotics – if treated with proper care – may last for several years.
Shoe inserts can be purchased at retail stores and ordered online. These non-prescription products are placed in shoes to provide arch support, alleviate foot and leg discomfort, or cushion the foot. However, unlike custom orthotics, shoe inserts do not address foot problems caused by biomechanical issues with the feet or legs, nor are they made to remedy foot issues resulting from chronic problems.
Common kinds of shoe inserts include:
When purchasing a shoe insert, consider the following factors:
See a Podiatrist
If you suffer from a serious foot problem or if over-the-counter shoe inserts do not remedy your problem, visit a podiatrist for a thorough examination and assessment. The doctor will evaluate your gait and examine your feet to determine the source of your discomfort, then prescribe the correct treatment – custom orthotics or shoe inserts – for your individual needs.
To design custom orthotics, the podiatrist will use a 3D image of your feet, along with precise measurements, to ensure that your orthotics fit your individual requirements and provide the comfort and support needed to remedy your foot issue. A podiatrist may make other treatment recommendations, as well, depending on your needs.
Diabetes is at epidemic proportions and is currently the fastest growing chronic disease. It occurs when a person’s body fails to produce the hormone insulin, or uses insulin inefficiently. Insulin helps provide energy to the body by helping move sugar molecules (from the things we eat and drink) into our cells. When one has insufficient insulin, sugar builds-up in the blood stream. Excess blood glucose over extended periods of time can contribute to a variety of health issues, including
Symptoms & Diagnosing Diabetes:
Common symptoms of diabetes include excessive thirst, frequent urination, extreme hunger, fatigue, irritability, unexplained weight loss, blurred vision and slow healing of bruises. If you suspect that you have diabetes, see your doctor. If you’ve been diagnosed with diabetes, follow the advice of your healthcare provider to manage symptoms and minimize damage.
Symptoms & Diagnosing Diabetes:
Common symptoms of diabetes include excessive thirst, frequent urination, extreme hunger, fatigue, irritability, unexplained weight loss, blurred vision and slow healing of bruises. If you suspect that you have diabetes, see your doctor. Podiatrists can help diabetes sufferers prevent and treat foot-related complications of diabetes.
Over time, diabetes can cause damage your nerves and blood vessels. Damage to the blood vessels interrupts proper blood and oxygen flow to cells so injuries cuts or sores fail to heal. Serious cases may even lead to amputation.
Nerve damage can cause loss of feeling in feet as well. To help avoid foot problems, control your blood sugar levels. Excellent foot hygiene is also essential:
Warning Signs of Diabetes
Visit a Podiatrist
Diabetes complications are responsible for over 65,000 amputations in any given year. Regular foot screening can reduce your risk of amputation due to diabetes by as much as 85%; and significantly lessen the need for diabetes-related hospitalizations.
Caring for Feet if you have Diabetes
If you suffer from diabetes:
If a foot problem causes excessive pain, if non-surgical treatment has not remedied a foot problem or injury, or if a foot deformity is present, surgery may be needed to alleviate pain and renew proper function.
Prior to surgery, your podiatrist may require that certain tests or exams be performed. These tests may include EKG, blood analysis, urine analysis, as well as tests to evaluate blood flow. You and the doctor will also discuss your health history, allergies, medications and other health-related issues. If the podiatrist feels that some aspect of your current health requires further evaluation, he may recommend that you see a specialist.
Foot Surgery Types
There are many different types of foot surgery Podiatrists peform, including surgery to:
Care following surgery depends on the type of surgery the doctor performed. Factors common to surgery aftercare include:
Always adhere to your doctor’s instructions for a safe and successful recovery from foot surgery.
A fracture occurs when a bone breaks. A sprain involves injury of soft tissue, notably a stretched or torn ligament. The foot and ankle are common sites for fractures and sprains, with sports-related injuries contributing to the occurrences of the incidents. Even if you do not participate in sports, a trip or stumble while walking can cause a foot-related injury.
Symptoms of Fractures & Sprains
Caring for a Foot or Ankle Injury at Home
See a Podiatrist
If the pain of your injury gets worse, you notice redness or inflammation, or you have trouble walking following an injury, see a podiatrist for evaluation.
Diagnosing & Treating Fractures & Sprains
Your visit to the podiatrist will involve an examination of your injury and a discussion of your health history. An X-ray can identify a bone fracture, while an MRI or ultrasound may be needed to assess a soft-tissue injury.
The treatment the podiatrist recommends will hinge on the extent and type of injury.
Preventing Fractures & Sprains
A bony bump at the back of the heel, along with heel pain, indicate a condition called Haglund's Deformity. Women frequently experience this condition as a result of wearing pumps. Hence, Haglund’s Deformity may be referred to as pump bump. Blisters may also form on the heel caused by shoe movement along the bump.
Causes of Haglund’s Deformity
Caring for Haglund’s Deformity at Home
See a Podiatrist
Visit a podiatrist to address symptoms that don’t subside with home care. The podiatrist will examine your feet, discuss your health history, and may take X-rays for a detailed view of foot structure. Other diagnostic tools that may be of use in diagnosing the source of your discomfort include ultrasound and MRI.
Treating Haglund’s Deformity
Depending on your unique situation, treatment may include:
Preventing Haglund’s Deformity
Oddly bent toes, other than the big toe, are called hammer, claw, and mallet toes.
Causes of Hammer, Claw & Mallet Toe
The top culprit is wearing shoes that fit too tightly. Over time, the muscles and tendons in toes force the toes into a curved or bent position until ultimately, they become unable to straighten. Women who wear high-heeled shoes and shoes with narrow toes are most likely to experience these toe problems.
Occasionally, hammer, claw, and mallet toes may be associated with other conditions including stroke, foot and ankle injuries, diabetes, or rheumatoid arthritis.
Hammer, Claw & Mallet Toe Symptoms
These strangely positioned toes may or may not hurt. However, if you notice a strange shape to a toe, it is important to see your podiatrist right away.
Diagnosing & Treating Hammer, Claw & Mallet Toes
Diagnosing these toe conditions consists of an examination and a discussion with your podiatrist. Your doctor may ask you about what impacts the discomfort, whether you are experiencing other types of foot pain, when symptoms started, types of activities you perform daily and whether you have had foot issues previously. Your podiatrist will also access your medical history. Diagnostic X-rays, nerve testing, and ultrasound may be required, especially if surgery is being considered.
Non-Surgical Treatment (Homecare)
A joint that retains movement may be treated non-surgically. Early treatment of these toe conditions will often consist of homecare, such as:
Toe discomfort that does not respond to homecare after 2-3 weeks should be addressed by your podiatrist. A sore on a toe should be evaluated to avoid infection. If you suffer from diabetes or peripheral arterial disease, it’s especially important to see your doctor for any foot pain or sores.
Surgery may be required to address an immobile joint. Surgical options include:
Toe problems can recur following surgery, especially if inappropriate footwear continues to be worn.
As your heart beats, blood pushes against artery walls. The force with which this occurs is called blood pressure. High blood pressure, also known as hypertension, is defined as blood pressure that remains elevated beyond normal levels over time.
Atherosclerosis occurs when plaque accumulates in blood vessels. This condition is related to high blood pressure. As a result of atherosclerosis, blood circulation can diminish and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) can occur. Skin ulcerations, some of which may result in amputation, can be a consequence of poor circulation in the feet and legs.
High Blood Pressure Symptoms
High blood pressure can affect the feet and legs in the following ways:
See a Podiatrist
Because hypertension and circulatory issues can dramatically impact foot and leg health, it is imperative that you tell your podiatrist if you suffer from these conditions or if you experience any of the symptoms listed above. Additionally, to prevent negative interactions with medicine prescribed for foot or leg conditions, let your podiatrist know if you take medication for hypertension. Medically controlled hypertension is necessary if you are scheduled for surgery on the foot or ankle.
Diagnosing & Treatment Hypertension
At your podiatric office visit, the doctor will evaluate your vital signs, which includes taking a blood pressure reading. Low blood pressure in the feet or legs, skin that is abnormal in color, or a low pulse rate in the foot can signal circulatory issues and may necessitate a referral to your primary care physician. Tell your doctor if you experience swelling in the feet or legs, as this may be a sign of a circulatory issue, as well.
When a toenail grows into the skin, usually on the big toe, it is called an ingrown toenail. This condition causes redness, swelling, discomfort, and possibly infection. Ingrown toenails occur more commonly in older adults who may have thick or curved toenails.
Causes of Ingrown Toenails
Diagnosing & Treating Ingrown Toenails
A physical examination by a doctor can yield an ingrown toenail diagnosis. Home remedies for treating an ingrown toenail include submerging the toe in warm water 2-3 times a day for approximately 15 minutes; then placing a small portion of a wet cotton ball under an edge of the ingrown toenail.
After the nail lifts and grows away from the skin, it can be trimmed. Wearing comfortable shoes following treatment is advised. Never use scissors or a needle to address an ingrown toenail, as infection could occur or worsen.
If homecare does not resolve an ingrown toenail you should see your podiatrist. You should also seek professional care if infection sets in -characterized by redness, swelling, warmth, and possibly red streaks extending from the site of the ingrown toenail.
Your podiatrist may recommend antibiotics and/or removal of part of the toenail or the entire toenail to resolve the issue. Depending on the method of surgery used and whether the toenail root is removed, the toenail may or may not grow back following surgery.
Preventing Ingrown Toenails
Note: Always confer with your doctor regarding the proper way to trim your toenails if you suffer from diabetes or peripheral arterial disease.
A neuroma occurs as a result of a growth of nerve tissue. Sometimes called nerve tumors or pinched nerves, neuromas are painful but benign. They most often occur between the third and fourth toes of the foot, although the discomfort caused by a neuroma can radiate to the ball of the foot, as well. Swelling between the toes may occur. A neuroma can feel like you have a rock in your shoe pressing on your foot. More women than men develop neuromas.
Symptoms can include numbness, burning, tingling, and pain when walking. When pain occurs, sufferers are advised to remove their shoe and massage the area that hurts.
Causes of Neuromas
A definitive cause is unknown, but the following factors may play a role in the development of this condition:
Home Care for Neuromas
See a Podiatrist
Neuromas can worsen if not treated. A podiatrist will examine your foot and may take an X-ray. Treatment for simple neuromas may include wearing thick socks with properly fitted shoes. This relieves pressure on the neuroma and lets it heal on its own. Surgery may be an option for severe cases of neuroma.
Other treatments may include:
It is not known for sure what causes neuromas. The following practices may help prevent them, however.
When the cartilage surrounding a joint begins to break down, the joint loses the cushioning that enables smooth, pain-free motion and becomes damaged. Osteoarthritis can affect any joint in the body, but it primarily impacts the spine, feet, knees, hips, and hands. Sufferers experience joint pain that makes using the affected joint difficult. Osteoarthritis is more common in older people.
It is currently unclear what causes cartilage around joints to break down, but the following factors may contribute:
After discussing your symptoms, the doctor will examine your sore joints and the muscles surrounding them. X-rays may be ordered to help identify joint damage. Blood tests and other diagnostic evaluations can help rule out other conditions that may be causing joint pain.
There is no cure for osteoarthritis, although treatments exist to ease discomfort and increase joint movement. The appropriate treatment depends on many factors and may include:
Osteoarthritis sufferers can also help themselves by using devices at home that minimize joint stress, such as using canes, special doorknob covers, splints, and tools to reach for and hold items. Lifestyle changes may help, too. Try swimming; or walking instead of jogging, for instance.
Peripheral Arterial Disease, or PAD, is a condition that impacts up to 12 million Americans. Twenty percent of the population over age 70 suffers from PAD. The condition occurs when plaque builds up in the arteries and causes narrowing and hardening, called atherosclerosis, which contributes to reduced circulation. In some cases, this accumulation of plaque can completely block an artery. Typically, PAD affects the leg arteries, although other arteries can be affected as well, including the ones that transport blood to the brain, arms, kidneys, stomach, and aorta. Hardening of the arteries in the heart is known as coronary artery disease. It is also called cardiovascular disease.
PAD increase the risk of death from stroke or heart attack. Along with diabetes, PAD is a primary contributor to amputation of the foot or leg.
PAD Risk Factors
Note: Many PAD sufferers do not experience this type of discomfort.
See a Podiatrist
If you experience leg pain, see a podiatrist to determine if it is a symptom of PAD. Detecting PAD in the early stage decelerates its progression and minimize stroke/heart attack risk.
Diagnosing & Treating PAD
An ankle-brachial index, or ABI, blood test can determine the occurrence of PAD. This test compares arm/ankle blood pressure. A normal reading on the ABI test may necessitate additional tests to determine PAD.
Treatment for PAD includes:
When the nerves in the fingertips and toes, called peripheral nerves, become damaged, a burning or tingling sensation, sharp pain, or numbness can occur. This is called peripheral neuropathy. Nerves do not function as they should, resulting in the sensations described above. Peripheral neuropathy can also negatively impact the ability to move the fingers and toes.
Causes of Peripheral Neuropathy
Diabetes is the leading cause of this condition in the United States. It is estimated that up to 70% of people who suffer from diabetes will also experience peripheral neuropathy at some point in their lives. Age plays a role as well, as the risk of neuropathy increases with age.
Other causes are:
Preventing Peripheral Neuropathy
Maintaining proper blood sugar level is the most important action you can undertake to avoid peripheral neuropathy. The degree to which peripheral neuropathy occurs often hinges upon how well blood sugar is controlled.
See a Podiatrist
It is important to tell your doctor if you experience any of the signs of peripheral neuropathy, as they could indicate diabetes complications or undiagnosed diabetes.
Diagnosing & Treating Peripheral Neuropathy
To diagnose peripheral neuropathy, the doctor will conduct a physical exam, discuss your health history, talk about the symptoms you are experiencing, and may schedule a blood test.
No cure currently exists for peripheral neuropathy, although proper treatment can minimize discomfort, help maintain the health of the feet, and impede the advancement of peripheral neuropathy.
Treatment may consist of:
If you suffer from peripheral neuropathy, it is recommended that you see a podiatrist at least once each year for a thorough examination of your feet.
Home Care for Peripheral Neuropathy
A flat ligament called the plantar fascia is located at the bottom of the foot. It connects the heel bone to the toes and supports the arch. When this ligament becomes strained, tiny tears in the ligament can cause swelling and discomfort, resulting in heel pain known as plantar fasciitis.
Plantar Fasciitis Risk Factors
This common cause of heel pain occurs commonly in middle-age. Risk factors for developing plantar fasciitis include:
Plantar Fasciitis Symptoms
Note: Foot pain that occurs at night may indicate a nerve problem, arthritis, or another condition other than plantar fasciitis.
Diagnosing & Treating Plantar Fasciitis
An examination may include:
Treatment for plantar fasciitis depends on individual. The doctor may recommend:
Following treatment, plantar fasciitis pain may dissipate after a few weeks. However, it may take many months – even up to a year – for pain to fully subside.
We are constantly sloughing off dead skin cells and creating new ones. The skin condition known as psoriasis occurs when this renewal process occurs too quickly. The rapid creation of new skin cells does not let old ones slough off as they should. Instead, the dead skin cells remain on the skin, causing dry, thick, reddish skin with patches (called psoriatic plaques) that are silvery white in color. Psoriasis can affect small or large areas of the body. These patches may cause the skin to itch. Typically, psoriasis sufferers experience psoriatic plaques on the soles of the feet, elbows, and knees, although other parts of the body – joints, fingernails, toenails – may be affected.
Causes of Psoriasis
This autoimmune disease has a genetic component and can be hereditary. People with weakened immune symptoms and those undergoing stressful situations can experience severe psoriasis.
Home Care for Psoriasis
See a Podiatrist
If you think you have psoriasis on your feet and home care does not improve the condition, a podiatrist can evaluate the situation. An examination will tell the doctor if the condition is psoriasis or another condition such as contact dermatitis or athlete’s foot.
Diagnosing & Treating Psoriasis
A visit to the podiatrist will include a discussion of your health history and a thorough examination. A skin biopsy in which the doctor removes some cells from the area of skin being examined can aid in diagnosing psoriasis.
The severity of the psoriasis will dictate the recommended treatment. Treatment may include:
Your podiatrist may work in tandem with your other healthcare providers to administer treatment for your psoriasis if your case is severe.
Psoriasis cannot be prevented. It can, however, be managed by identifying and avoiding things that aggravate your psoriasis. For example, learning stress management techniques, avoiding alcohol, and monitoring your sunlight exposure may minimize psoriasis occurrences if these things are triggers for your psoriasis.
Skin cancer that occurs on the feet is often painless. It is typically found when unrelated issues of the feet are noticed. Skin cancer of the foot often follows repetitive occurrences of skin ulceration, bleeding, or cracking of the skin on the feet. Frequently, individuals discover their skin cancer after unrelated ailments occur near the affected site.
Skin cancers that affect the feet are usually linked to:
Common Types of Skin Cancers of the Feet
Basal cell carcinoma usually occurs on skin that has undergone frequent exposure to the sun, but it can occur on the feet.
Squamous cell carcinoma is the most frequently occurring skin cancer of the feet.
Malignant melanoma is one of the most lethal types of skin cancer.
See a Podiatrist
Always inspect your feet for skin abnormalities. See a podiatrist right away if you notice a bump or patch that fits meets the ABCD criteria:
In addition, if you have an ulcer or sore that does not heal; bleeding or cracked bumps on the skin; raised areas, scaly patches; or raised areas with an edge that is shaped like a donut, contact a doctor immediately.
Diagnosing & Treating Skin Cancers of the Feet
A thorough examination of your foot and the suspicious lesion, along with a skin biopsy, will help your podiatrist determine the appropriate diagnosis and correct treatment.
Preventing Skin Cancers of the Feet
Minimize exposure to the sun and apply sunscreen with an appropriate SPF to lessen the risk of developing skin cancers of the feet.
Hyperhidrosis is the medical term describing excessive sweating of the feet and/or hands. This condition impacts more younger than older people and more men than women. The cause of hyperhidrosis is not known, but it seems to have a hereditary component. Current thinking is that the point at which sweating is typically triggered is different for people with hyperhidrosis than for those who do not suffer from this condition.
Symptoms of Hyperhidrosis
Excess sweat is the primary symptom of this condition. Additionally, feet may look wet and white in color and have an odor. Infections can occur with hyperhidrosis, as the constant wetness makes the skin susceptible to infection.
Home Care for Hyperhidrosis
Proper home care can prevent infection and odor to keep feet healthy.
Diagnosing & Treating Hyperhidrosis
A podiatrist will examine your feet and discuss your symptoms. A starch-iodine test is a diagnostic tool that aids in the diagnosis of hyperhidrosis. Your doctor will recommend treatment based on your unique situation. Treatment may include:
Tendons are the structures in the body that connect muscles to bones. Tendon injuries typically occur near joints, with the elbow and heel joints sustaining most of those injuries. The onset of a tendon injury may seem sudden, but it is more commonly the result of tiny tears occurring over time and weakening the tendon, making it susceptible to injury.
Common terms for tendon problems:
Causes of Tendon Injuries
The aging process, overuse of a tendon, and wear and tear over time are the typical causes of tendon injuries. People of any age can experience a tendon injury suddenly during sports or falls, although those who perform repetitive motions day-to-day, or in the workplace are most at risk.
Symptoms of Tendon Injuries
Diagnosing & Treating Tendon Injuries
A physical exam and health history can help your podiatrist diagnose a tendon injury. You may be asked to demonstrate the movement that causes the discomfort. Diagnostic tests that include ultrasound, MRI, or X-rays may be required.
Home care for tendon injuries includes:
If tendon injuries do not improve with home care, your doctor may recommend physical therapy or a device to immobilize the tendon.
Tendon injuries may take several week or months to heal. After your injury improves, slowly return to normal activities, taking care not to overuse the impacted tendon. Lifestyle, activity, and workplace changes may be required to prevent re-injury.
The skin infection known as athlete’s foot (also called tinea pedis) typically occurs between the fourth and fifth toes. Athlete’s foot can affect the nails and the bottom of feet, as well. Early treatment is advised if the nails are impacted.
Athlete’s Foot Symptoms
Itching is the primary symptom of athlete’s foot. Other symptoms include:
Causes of Athletes Foot
Athlete’s foot occurs when fungi called dermatophytes respond to moist, warm conditions or a lowering of the body’s natural resistance by reproducing in large quantities on the skin, causing the infection known as tinea pedis.
Treating Athlete's Foot
Your doctor may advise you to:
Toenail fungus (onychomycosis) feeds on dead skin cells in order to multiply. The fungus spreads from the end of the toenail growth plate extending under the surface of the nail. Toenail fungus sometimes occurs in conjunction with athlete’s foot. Symptoms include white, chalk-like areas on a toenail. These white patches eventually become yellow or brown in tone. The nail may thicken and become misshapen due to cell damage.
Toenail Fungus Treatments
Toenail fungus is often hard to eliminate. Typical treatments include:
To prevent re-infection, it is important to treat shoes with an antifungal spray, in conjunction with these other treatments.
Warts result from excessive growth of the cells on the top layer of skin. A wart can occur on any part of the body. Contact with the virus known as human papilloma virus (HPV) is responsible for warts. Types of warts include common warts and plantar warts. People typically experience common warts on the hands; plantar warts occur on the bottom of the feet.
Warts spread through contact with the wart itself or by using a towel or other personal item of a person with a wart. Warts are slow growing, and most warts resolve without treatment, although it can take months or even years for a wart to go away.
There are smooth, flat warts, as well as rough, bumpy ones. Some warts display a dark spot in the center, which is caused by blood vessels growing into the wart core. Warts typically don’t cause pain, unless they occur in a place that receives pressure.
Usually, a visual examination is all that’s required to diagnose a wart. A skin biopsy may be taken to confirm a diagnosis and rule out other conditions.
Unless a wart causes pain, is spreading, or is unsightly, no treatment is required. Treatments for warts include:
Most treatments don’t kill the virus that caused the wart, meaning that even a treated wart can return or spread.